Charity Hitt MMC 6660 Blog

University of Florida College of Journalism and Communications

Annotated Bibliography

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Annotated Bibliography – link to formatted version in Microsoft Word.

Works Cited

Albiniak, Paige. (2005).  Niche plays. Broadcasting & Cable, 135(24), 18. Retrieved October 5, 2012, From
This case study examines the growing niche area of Spanish language programming targeted towards children.  It analyzes the limited competition in this area of programming and the direction which it is heading.

Berman, S., Duffy, N., Shipnuck, L. (2012).  The end of television as we know it: Future industry perspectives. IBM media and entertainment. Retrieved October 5, 2012, From
This article released by IBM Corporation is an overarching look at the state of the media industry today, and how the traditional model of the audience is changing, becoming increasingly fragmented and dividing their time between many choices in programming and viewing platforms.  IBM asserts there are two types of audience members today, the active and the passive, and it is the passive which the industry must pay attention to, as they are changing the media landscape.

Bauerleing, Mark. (2008). The Dumbest Generation: How the Digital Age Stupefies Young Americans and Threatens Our Future.  New York: Penguin.
Baerling discusses his belief that though the current generation has more access to information than any other before them, because this generation has grown up with new media, they are less informed.  The author critically points to social networking as the basis for the problem.

Bryant, Jennings, and John Davies. (2006). Selective exposure processes. In Psychology of entertainment. Edited by Jennings Bryant and Peter Vorderer, 19–33. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
This chapter is an updated discussion of selective exposure, from Bryant and  Zillman’s previous text in 1985.  It is a curret overview of the process which a viewer undergoes when selecting entertainment programming. This particular text argues selective exposure is influenced by a viewer’s mood.

Buchwalter, Charles. (2009).  The long tail of the net: How important is it? Nielsenwire.  Retrieved October 1, 2012, From nielsenwire/online_mobile/the-long-tail-of-the-net-just-how-important-is-it/.
This article from Nielsen, a ratings and audience measurement company, offers insight into the engagement metrics and levels of audience members who seek out niche content, and discusses how this plays in to the theory of the long tail. Nielsen puts into the simplest of terms, why viewers prefer niche content, stating, “The central concept is that people tend to be most engaged in content that is core to their specific interests, rather than more generalized content” (2009).

Campbell, Jeremy. (2012). Niche vide channels are the future. Retrieved October 1, 2012 From
This media blog post from Jeremy Campbell discusses how the internet and its opportunity for niche content channels is the future of media consumption.

Carey, James. (1989). A cultural approach to communication. Communicatios as a Culture: Essays on Media and Society (pp. 1-23). Retrieved September 11, 2012, From
This text discusses two  different approaches to communication; the transmission approach and the ritual approach, both born from religious and moral context.  The transmission view approaches communication as the literal transmission of communication from sender to reciever, while the ritual view approaches it as a communal act.

Chan, E., Steen, F., Vordever, P. (2006). Motivation. Psychology of Entertainment. (pp. 3-17).  Mahwah, NJ.  Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
This chapter discusses the various motivations that drive viewers to make the media choices that they do.  It discusses the questions of “who is doing what in which kind of situation” and why.

Cohen, D. (2012). Meet the new niche, same as old niche? Daily Variety, 314(14), 2. Retrieved October 5, 2012 From ps/
This article discusses the changes in niche networks and the changes in types of content they provide now as opposed to in their infancy. It also discusses the pressures placed upon niche networks to diversify their content in order to appeal to broader audiences, which is in opposition to their very definition.

Croteau, D., Hoynes, W., & Milan, S. (2012). The economics of the media industry. Media/society: Industries, images, and audiences. (pp. 31-70). Thousand Oaks, Calif: Pine Forge Press.
This chapter discusses the economic models for the media industry and the practices which they use to make money.  It is an in depth examination of the dynamics behind the money making process of the mass media, and offers insight into the economical forces driving the creation of niche content.

Croteau, D., Hoynes, W., & Milan, S. (2012). The economics of the media industry. Media/society: Industries, images, and audiences. (pp. 185-215). Thousand Oaks, Calif: Pine Forge Press.
This text discusses the ways in which content decisions are made, citing several different influencers on the decision making process, including producers, societal pressures and interests, and what will be most important to look at for my purposes,  the audience.

Dimitrova, N., and Zimmerman, J. et al. (2003). Content Augmentation of Personalized Entertainment Experience. 3rd Workshop on Personalization in Future TV.  Retrieved October 5, 2012, From
This article is a study on metadate and how personilzed reccomendations for content are effecting the way we view television.  Through internet and television reccomendations, the media viewer is now privy to an enhanced personal viewing experience. The authors state, “These technologies can improve the viewing experience by better understanding the TV content and by retrieving related material that is more focused at individual users,” (2003) but could this be leading us towards a path of more narrow viewing habits that only reflect our personal interests?

Dimmick, J. W., Patterson, S. J., & Albarran, A. B. (1992). Competition Between the Cable and Broadcast Industries: A Niche Analysis. Journal Of Media Economics, 5(1), 13-30. Retrieved October 1, 2012, From
This scholarly paper is based on the theory of the niche, and uses a new human ecology metric (Schoener’s alpha) to determine whether cable television is a superior competitor over broadcast television in today’s changing market. The authors find that though cable TV is a competitor, it is not yet a threat of being an “imminent” displacer of broadcast television.

Hartmann, Tilo, ed. (2009). Uses and gratifications as media choice. Media choice: A theoretical and empirical overview. New York and London: Routledge. Retrieved September 13, 2012, From
This text used the Uses and Gratification theory as a backdrop for their discussion on what drives certain personality types to view particular genres of programming, and how this guides their viewing decisions.

Holcomb, J., Mitchell, A., and Rosentiel, T. (2012).  The state of the news media 2012: An annual report on American Journalism. The pew research center’s project for excellence in journalism. Retrieved October 1, 2012, From
As part of the Pew Research Center’s Project for Excellence in Journalism, this yearly review of the state of American journalism looks at the American appetite for news, specifically on cable news networks CNN and Fox News. The report finds a temporary surge in news viewing, most likely spurred by the upcoming 2012 presidential election, and it also discusses the threat digitalization poses to cable news networks in an upcoming generation of internet viewers.

Hooghe, Marc. (2002).  Watching television and civic engagement: Disentangling the      effects of time, programs, and stations.  The International Journal of Press/Politics Spring 2002 vol. 7 no. 2 84-104.  Retrieved October 1, 2012, From
This article examines the relationship between viewing television and levels of civic engagement. It finds that a higher viewing of television correlates to a higher viewing of entertainment as opposed to news programming, and offers the hypothesis that more viewing of this type leaves to a less civic minded viewer. This is similar to the hypothesis I am making, and will be a great reference in my literature review.

Kobach, M. J. and Weaver, A. J. (2012), The Relationship Between Selective Exposure and the Enjoyment of Television Violence. Aggr. Behav., 38: 175–184. Retrieved September 13, 2012, From
This study examines the correlation between the enjoyment of selective exposure to media violence, and the enjoyment of media violence.

Lee, P., Leung, L., & So, C. (2004). Toward Intelligent Societies: The Impacts of Globalization, Customization, Flexibility and Multiple Identities. Impact and Issues in New Media: Toward Intelligent Societies (pp. 1-20). Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press, Inc.
This chapter is a collaborative effort of authors Lee, Leung and So, whcih  discusses the increase in societal problems that are prevalent as ICTs (information and communication technologies) permeate society.  The authors argue that we are equipped with access to more information than ever before, and the idea that an uniformed society is implausible; however it is not impossible.

Logan, R. (2010). Television. Understanding New Media: Extending Marshall McLuhan (pp. 192-203). New York: Peter Lang Publishing, Inc.
This work is an update and extension of author Robert Logan’s former colleague and mentor, Marshall McLuhan.  The insightful chapther dedicated to television viewing shows the different ways in which new media effects television; for better and for worse.

Macnameara, J. (2010). Audience Fragmentation and demassification. The 21st Century Media (R)evolution (pp. 120-135). New York: Peter Lang Publishing, Inc.
This chapter focuses on perceptions surrounding the mass audience, and its fragmentation.  The author questions whether a mass audience ever truly existed, and whether the fragmentation of audiences is only a result of more choices in media programming that cater to specific interests.

McGuire, Mark. (2003, ). Food network has served up success, channel combines niche programming and broad appeal. Charleston Daily Mail, pp. 8.D.  Retrieved October 5, 2012, From
This case study of the Food Network identifies their strategy of combining niche programming and that which has a much broader appeal. It also discusses the increasing existence of niche networks related to almost every interest, and the business model behind these channels.

Medoff, N. J. (1982). Selective exposure to televised comedy programs. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 10(2), 117-132. Retrieved October 5, 2012, From
This study explores selective exposure to entertainment content and recent findings “That people in a negative affective state tend to avoid comedy programs.”  The study seeks to explore these findings and tests their validity.

Messing, Solomon and Sean J. Westwood. (2011). An Era of Social Media Effects? How Social Media Change the Way We Consume News and Reduce Partisan Selective Exposure. Retrieved September 13, 2012, From
Through experiments in selective exposure and social media, the authors attempt to demostate that social ties, and the endorsement of information from those ties, directly correlates to why a viewer chooses selective exposure to certain media content.

Napoli, P. M. (2011). The transformation of media consumption.  Audience evolution: New technologies and the transformation of media audiences. (pp. 54-87). New York: Columbia University Press.
This chapter discusses the increasingly autonomous nature of the media audience and the fragmentation that is increasingly occuring.  It points out the various avenues that viewers now have when it comes to viewing media content, and the increasing sources that are available to consumers.

Napoli, P. M. (2011).  The implications of audience evolution. Audience evolution: New technologies and the transformation of media audiences. (pp.149-192). New York: Columbia University Press.
This chapter points out the issues and implications of the fragmentation of the media audience.  It offers an overarching view of the effects of the changing media audience, and the way our rationalization of the traditional media audience is changing.

Neuman, W. R. (1991). The future of the mass audience. Cambridge [England: Cambridge University Press.
This book is a study of multiple networks including ABC, CBS and NBC, seeking to gain inshight on the effect of personal computers and an increasing availability of content choices on the mass audience.  It argues that “the movement toward fragmentation and specialization will be modest and that the national media and common political culture will remain robust” (1991).  As this is an older text I would like to investigate his findings and see how they have played out.

Ouellette, Dan. (2005). Niche movement. Mediaweek, 15(35), 16. Retrieved September 30, 2012 From              This case study of MTV discusses the targeted niche programming offered by MTV and similar networks, and their need to expand to multiple channels and platforms to stay competetive in the changing media landscape.

Pogorelic, Vanessa. Repositioning print news in an online environment. Retrieved October 5, 2012, From
This graduate thesis offers a balanced review and extends upon Neuman’s previous work, The Future of the Mass Audience.  It discusses digitalization and what it means for the future of print journalism.

Sohini Mitter. (2012). Niche programming set to become mass with digitisation. Financial Express. Retrieved September 22, 2012, From
This article offers great deffinitions of what niche programming actually is.  It also discusses the issue of mandatory digitisation and how it has casued a boom in the existence of niche programming and networks.

Schwartz, T. (1982). Network Audiences Declining. New York Times, (pp. C.32). Retrieved October 5, 2012, From
This New York Times article discusses the dissapearance of the network audience, and investigates the various avenues of programming that are distracting viewiers from the networks.  The article identifies three main sources;as the culprits: pay television, cable and independent stations.

Sterling, C. H. (2009). Decline of News Audeinces. Encyclopedia of journalism. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc. doi: 10.4135/9781412972048. Retrieved October 5, 2012, From
This  encyclopedia article discusses the shift of television consumption from news to entertainment content.  It specifically describes the decline in news viewing in the American public, and examines the role which the internet has played in this monumental shift.

Twenge, J. M. (2006). Generation Me: Why today’s young Americans are more confident, assertive, entitled–and more miserable than ever before. New York: Free Press.
Twenge exposes, using personal interviews as well as detailed research, how the newest generation of young adults differs, in an unfavorable way, from those of the past, and argues that new media is the source of the problem.

Webster, J. G., & Ksiazek, T. B. (2012). The dynamics of audience fragmentation: Public attention in an age of digital media. Journal of Communication, 62(1), 39-56.  Retrieved October 5, 2012, From doi/10.1111/j.1460-2466.2011.01616.x/full.
This study criticizes the current methods of analyzing audience fragmentation.  Using network analysis metrics to analye Nielsen data of television and internet usage, their study finds “extremely high levels of audience duplication across 236 media outlets, suggesting overlapping patterns of public attention rather than isolated groups of audience loyalists.”

Wilson, Tony. (2009).  A passive audience? Structuralist and effects studies.  Understanding media users.  (pp. 7-28). Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
This chapter discusses the role of the media audience which was once classified as “passive”.  It cover the topics of agenda setting, the effects model, and the uses and gratifications theory as it applies to mass audiences.

Wilson, Tony. (2009). The active audience: Speaking subjects.  Understanding media users.  (pp.29-45).  Malden, MA; Blackwell Publishing.
This chapter discusses the shift from the passive mass audience to the active audience.  Now, more than ever before, the audience takes an active role in deciding on the media content they choose to consume. This article discusses the role the audience takes in interpreting messages received from media providers and the changes in brings to our media consumption habits.

Zillman, D. and Jennings Bryant. (1985). Selective Exposure to Communication. Hillside, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
This text is an overarching review of selective exposure of media from both the viewpoints of a communications scholar and a psychology scholar. It discusses the process of selective exposure in television, in particular.


Written by charityhitt

October 7, 2012 at 4:35 pm

Posted in Uncategorized

One Response

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  1. Good – you are well on your way.

    Ronald R. Rodgers

    October 8, 2012 at 2:52 pm

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